3 May 2021
© Gajus/Shutterstock

Civil society, academia, citizens of the Balkan region, the EU and the United States have written a letter addressed to their respective governments to denounce and prevent the ethno-nationalist drift that seems to be increasingly taking place in the Western Balkans, of which the recent "non-papers" are a striking example

Prior to 2018, the standard talking point for most Western governments toward the Balkans was fully consistent with the ideal of a Europe “whole, free, and at peace:” that no further pursuit of border changes or ethnoterritorialism would be permitted. Equality of citizens and acceptance of the historical reality of multiethnicity throughout the Western Balkans was presented not only as a prerequisite to Euro-Atlantic integration, but a requirement for maintenance of peace and comprehensive security after a series of wars left over 130,000 people dead in the span of a decade.

For well over a decade before 2018, the West’s policies in the region remained on bureaucratic autopilot – formally committed to Copenhagen criteria and liberal democratic values and standards, but increasingly distracted and defaulting to formalism and transactionalism with local elites. This zombie policy allowed NATO and EU enlargement without true resolution of outstanding disputes with neighbors. This error was raised at the time – and its effects can be seen now.

An inherently polarizing national authoritarian populism reminiscent of that seen in the former Yugoslavia beginning in the late 1980s became increasingly apparent among a number of EU member states and in the US with the election of Donald Trump. This cocktail of factors accelerated the negative trajectory of democracy in the Western Balkans. The only positive in this period – a breakthrough, now largely squandered in North Macedonia – came not because of the West’s policy, but despite it. Popular pressure forced the EU and US off the fence to compel Gruevski to new elections, then to accede to the results.

The embrace of the proposed partition of Kosovo made in summer 2018 by Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić and his Kosovar counterpart Hashim Thaçi – marketed variously as “land swap,” “demarcation,” and “border correction” – first by the EU’s Federica Mogherini, then by the US government, deviated from nearly two decades of transatlantic (and in America’s case, bipartisan) policy. Unfulfilled nationalist agendas regionwide immediately took note; florid ethno-nationalist dreams never disappeared in the Balkans; they had been suppressed and deterred by a West that hoped the EU enlargement process would obviate the need for deterrence. Bosnian Serb leader Milorad Dodik had long advocated state dissolution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, so readily used the new talking point. Vučić pointedly spoke of the need for good relations among “Serbs and Albanians,” with the clear implications that the borders in the region are not sacrosanct, but negotiable.

This is currently visible in the joint EU and US policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where – camouflaged in talk about election integrity – an effort to “amend the election law” is actually also about internal border demarcations and granting HDZ leader Dragan Čović his long-articulated dream of a de facto or de jure Croat third entity – the ethno-territorial holy grail of divisive nationalists. Even worse, the Western (EU/US/UK) support for this is using the Sejdić-Finci, Zornić, and Pilav cases as talking points, even though these rulings compel BiH to open the political space, not to tighten the feudal order. Croatia has made itself felt throughout this debate to press Croat ethno-territorial claims within BiH. The non-paper, Croatia put forward with illiberals Bulgaria, Hungary, and Slovenia, together with Greece, menacingly links state dysfunction (promised Čović and Dodik deliverables) to EU border control, to further inflame right and far-right fears of migrants and asylum seekers.

As a direct result of this morally rudderless policy, in the past week, we reached a new low. While the veracity of the document is still hotly disputed, an alleged “non-paper” put forward by Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Janša proposes the unification of Albanians, Serbs, and Croats in the region, partitioning BiH, North Macedonia, and Kosovo, but leaving Montenegro curiously unscathed, and not touching Serbia’s Sandžak. Whatever the provenance of the “non-paper,” there is no doubt a sincere cohort of adherents to such ethno-nationalist agendas. The first-order intent may be to make changes below this threshold seem more reasonable. But nobody should be fooled into belief that attempts to achieve these ends could be done without massive violence and forced population movements. Many on the “wrong side” of existing and projected lines on maps are vulnerable – and know it.

Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama – self-styled national chieftain and one of the likely beneficiaries of such a carve-up – claims to have discussed the “non-paper” with Janša. It is important that such a proposal be denied and rejected, or confirmed by the EU Commission President and EU Council President. If it was indeed genuine, then Slovenia’s upcoming presidency should be called into question, as it would be delusional to believe that there would not be moral, reputational, and material impact on the EU’s security during its leadership tenure.

There is still time for the US and EU to arrest the current trajectory, which would eventually end in violence. But only a willingness to confront the reality of a failed policy to date can achieve this – at the commanding heights of government. Reinforcement of the deterrent forces in the region (EUFOR and KFOR) to credible strength and mobility is long overdue to ensure a vision of values-based comprehensive security is not simply rhetorical.

We, the signatories, representing civil society, academia, and concerned citizens from throughout the region and beyond – including citizens of the EU and US – implore Presidents Biden, von der Leyen, and Michel, and Secretary General Stoltenberg, as well as heads of government of leading EU and NATO member states to recognize the clear and present danger yielded by their current policies and to recalibrate them accordingly.


1. Prof. Dr. Mehmed Akšamija, member of Montenegrin Academy (CANU) Montenegro

2. Mustafa Alagić, economist and businessman, Bosnia and Herzegovina

3. Stephen Albert, Former English language Editor BosNet, Montreal, Canada

4. Safet Alispahić, political scientist, Sydney, Australia

5. Andy Aydın-Aitchison, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, School of Law, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

6. Dr. Sabahudin Bajramović, Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

7. Jessie Barton-Hronešová, Oxford Dept. of Intl. Development, St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford, UK

8. Dr. Miroljub Barać, Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Serbia

9. Svetislav Basara, writer, Serbia

10. Professor Hazim Bašić, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

11. Dr. Kurt Bassuener, Senior Associate, Democratization Policy Council / CSTPV, University of St. Andrews; Dundee, Scotland, UK

12. Boban Batrićević, historian, Montenegro

13. Mr Nemanja Batrićević, political scientist, Montenegro

14. Ludwig Bauer, writer, Croatia

15. Edina Bećirević, Professor of Security Studies, University of Sarajevo

16. Samir Beharić, Fellow of the Transatlantic Inclusion Leaders Network (TILN) of the German Marshall Fund of the United States, Bosnia and Herzegovina

17. Biljana Bejkova, activist, North Macedonia

18. Mira Bekar, university professor, North Macedonia

19. Paolo Bergamaschi, Fondazione Alexander Langer Stiftung, Italy

20. Živan Berisavljević, ambassador, Serbia

21. Milivoj Bešlin, historian, Serbia

22. Dr. Florian Bieber, University of Graz, Austria

23. Sonja Biserko, Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia

24. Srđan Blagovčanin, Chairman, Transparency International Bosnia and Herzegovina

25. Assoc. prof. dr. Ana Bojinović Fenko, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

26. Rade Bojovic, Gradjanska inicijativa 21. Maj, Montenegro

27. Dr Marko Božić, lawyer, Serbia

28. Draga Božinović, journalist, Serbia

29. Nerma Bucan, Office of Christian Schwarz-Schilling

30. Nenad Čanak, President of LSV, Serbia

31. Svetlana Cenić, economist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

32. Dr. Luisa Chiodi, Director, Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso Transeuropa, Trento, Italy

33. Prof. Dr. Sci. Ana Chupeska, North Macedonia

34. Norman Cigar

35. Miloš Ćirić, political scientist, Serbia

36. Prof. Dr. Nerzuk Ćurak, political scientist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

37. Tarik Čengić, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

38. Prof. Dr. Adnan Čirgić, philologist, Montenegro

39. Sabina Čoko, manager, Bosnia and Herzegovina

40. Darimir Ćurčić, pedagogue, secondary school director, Bosnia and Herzegovina

41. Prof. Dr. Hamid Čustović, Agricultural and Nutritional Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

42. Abdulah Daul, Bosnia and Herzegovina

43. Dr. Sedad Dedić, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Faculty of Law, University of Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina

44. Dr. Johanna Deimel, Independent Analyst on Southeast Europe/Western Balkans, Munich, Germany

45. Alex Denev, lawyer, North Macedonia

46. Ana Dević, sociologist, Serbia

47. Prof. Dr. Ismet Dizdarević, Professor emeritus, social psychologist, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

48. Tanya L. Domi, Columbia University, NYC, US

49. Pavel Domonji, political scientist, Serbia

50. Momo Dragićević, journalist and satirist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

51. Dino Dupanović, historian, Bosnia and Herzegovina

52. Srđan Dvornik, translator, consultant, Croatia

53. Srećko Đukić, ambassador, Serbia

54. Slavko Đurđić, journalist, Montenegro

55. Aleksandra Đurić-Bosnić, culturologist, Serbia

56. Draško Đuranović, Editor of Pobjeda, Montenegro

57. Tinka Đuranović, sculptor, Montenegro

58. Peter Emerson, the de Borda Institute, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

59. Ljubomir Filipović, political scientist, Montenegro

60. Prof. Dr. Salih Fočo, Philosophical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

61. Muhamed Gačanović, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

62. Rasim Gačanović, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

63. Senid Gerin, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

64. Davor Gjenero, political scientist, Croatia

65. Sabit Grabus, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

66. Dr Dinko Gruhonjić, journalist, University professor, Serbia

67. Orhan Hadžagić, journalist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

68. Prof. Dr. Sabahudin Hadžialić, CSF, UNINETTUNO University, Rome, Italy

69. Prof. Dr. Enver Halilović, philosophy and sociology, ex-Rector University of Tuzla, diplomat, Bosnia and Herzegovina

70. Prof. Dr. Enver Halilović, member of the Montenegrin Academy (CANU), Montenegro

71. Dr. Rizvan Halilović, doctor of legal sciences, Bosnia and Herzegovina

72. Baroness (Arminka) Helić, UK

73. Aleksandar Hemon, Princeton University, US

74. Dr. Marko Attila Hoare, Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, Bosnia and Herzegovina

75. Dr. Carole Hodge, political scientist, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK

76. Sejfudin Hodžić, Zvornik, Bosnia and Herzegovina

77. Dr. Andi Hoxhaj, University of Warwick, School of Law, UK

78. Sead Husić, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

79. Mubera Isanović, professor, social activist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

80. Amb. Victor Jackovich (ret.), first U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of BiH, Member of Board, Vienna Economic Forum

81. Esad Jaganjac, Senior Mechanical Engineer at Deregallera, London

82. Dr.-Ing. Jasmin Jahić, Research Associate, Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Cambridge, UK

83. Boško Jakšić, journalist, Serbia

84. Antun-Zvonimir Jan, civic activist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

85. Goran Janev, professor of social Anthropology, North Macedonia

86. Duško Janjić, Forum for Ethnic Relations, Serbia

87. Ferhad Jašarević, law graduate, Bosnia and Herzegovina

88. Nerma Jelačić

89. Jadranka Jelinčić, Doctor of Legal Sciences

90. Richard Johnson, U.S. Foreign Service Officer, retired

91. Ivana Jordanovska, PhD Student at University of Southern California

92. Matt Joseph, Dayton City Commissioner, Dayton, Ohio, US

93. Đokica R. Jovanović, sociologist, Serbia

94. Mića Jovanović, journalist, Serbia

95. Pero Jurišin, Senior Consultant at the City of Split, Croatia

96. Prof. Dr Husnija Kamberović, historian, Bosnia

97. Dr. Tomasz Kamusella, Reader, School of History, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, UK

98. Jasmina Kapetanović, architect/software developer, Amstelveen Netherlands

99. Planinko Kapetanović, Bosnia and Herzegovina

100. Dženeta Karabegović, University of Salzburg, Austria

101. Dr. Soeren Keil, Canterbury Christ Church University, UK

102. Prof. Dr. Izudin Kešetović, Finance and Financial Policy, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

103. Dr. sc. Branko Kirigin, archeologist, Croatia

104. Suzana Kirandžiska, Executive Director Foundation for Education and Cultural Initiatives, North Macedonia

105. Izabela Kisić, Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia

106. Aleksandar Knežević, Professor emeritus, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

107. Prof. Dr. Olivera Komar, political scientist, University of Montenegro

108. Prof. Dr. Ivo Komšić, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Sarajevo, UNSA, ex-member of the Presidency of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

109. Dr. Slaven Kovačević, Faculty of Administration, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

110. Richard Kraemer, Head of Balkans Program, European Values Center for Security Policy, Prague, Czechia

111. Marion Kraske, political analyst/journalist, Hamburg, Germany

112. Dr. Gëzim Krasniqi, Lecturer in Nationalism and Political Sociology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

113. Strajo Krsmanović, dramatist, Director of Art Gallery, Bosnia and Herzegovina

114. Ana Krstinovska, President of Estima, Skopje, North Macedonia

115. Professor Slavo Kukić, Member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, sociologist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

116. Adil Kulenović, President of Circle 99, professor and journalist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

117. Haris Kulenović, journalist and scenarist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

118. Mirza Kulenović, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

119. Mirsad Kunić, university professor, Bosnia and Herzegovina

120. Tarik Kupusović, retired professor and researcher, hydraulic engineering, Bosnia and Herzegovina

121. Professor Senadin Lavić, Faculty of Political Science, University of Sarajevo

122. Dr. Lazar Lazić, university professor, Serbia

123. Slaviša Lekić, journalist, Serbia

124. Peter Lippman, author, Surviving the Peace: The Struggle for Postwar Recovery in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Seattle, UK

125. Željko Majstorović, physicist and climatologist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

126. Prof. Dr. Fatima Mahmutćehajić, university professor, Bosnia and Herzegovina

127. Rusmir Mahmutćehajić, International Forum Bosna, Bosnia and Herzegovina

128. Srđan Mandić, politician, Bosnia and Herzegovina

129. Eric Manton, Consultant, OSCE, Skopje, North Macedonia

130. Mr. Milan Marković, philologist, Serbia

131. Tomislav Marković, journalist, Serbia

132. Slobodanka Markovska, university professor, North Macedonia

133. Dr. Branislav Marović, historian, Montenegro

134. Fikret Mehović, Global Security Expert, Sarajevo

135. Nataša Micić, former Parliament Speaker, Serbia

136. Nedim Milanović, manager, Bosnia and Herzegovina

137. Dr. Aleksandar R. Miletić, historian, Serbia

138. Ema Markoska Miličin, translator, North Macedonia

139. Vladimir Milichin, theater director, North Macedonia

140. Srđan Milošević, historian, Serbia

141. Fata Muftić, professor of sociology, Faculty of Political Science, University of Sarajevo

142. Jasmin Mujanović, PhD, US

143. Dr. Asim Mujkić, Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Sarajevo

144. Dino Mustafić, film and theater director, Bosnia and Herzegovina

145. Fadil Mušanović, retired judge, Bosnia and Herzegovina

146. Sead Nazibegović, university professor, Bosnia and Herzegovina

147. John Paul Newman, Maynooth University, Ireland

148. Sir Geoffrey Nice, Geoffrey Nice Foundation, UK

149. Tamara Nikčević, journalist, Montenegro

150. Andrej Nikolaidis, writer and journalist, Montenegro

151. Boris A. Novak, playwright, Slovenia

152. Professor John O' Brennan, Maynooth University, Ireland

153. Ivan Obradović, university professor, Serbia

154. Aleksandar Olenik, lawyer, Serbia

155. Edin Omerčić, historian, Institute for History UNSA, Bosnia and Herzegovina

156. Dr. Senad Oprašić, UNSA, ecology expert, Bosnia and Herzegovina

157. Ms. Sanja Orlandić, philosopher, Montenegro

158. Ratko Orozović, director and satirist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

159. Маrija Pandevska, university professor, North Macedonia

160. Žarko Papić, Director IBHI (Independent Bureau for Humanitarian Interests), Bosnia and Herzegovina

161. Safet Pašić, Ex-Ombudsman for Human Rights, Bosnia and Herzegovina

162. Lulzim Peci, Director KIPRED, Kosovo

163. Senad Pećanin, journalist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

164. Mirko Pejanović, academician and political scientist, Vice President of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of BiH, ex-member of the Presidency of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

165. Prof. Dr. Marinko Pejić, Professor emeritus, Pedagogical Faculty, University of Sarajevo

166. Dr. Latinka Perović, historian, Serbia

167. Prof. Dr. Milenko A. Perović, university professor, Serbia

168. Dr. Valery Perry, Senior Associate, Democratization Policy Council, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

169. Tanja Petovar, lawyer, Serbia

170. Violeta Petroska-Beshka, Professor of Psychology, President, Center for Human Rights and Conflict Resolution, Skopje, North Macedonia

171. Dr. David Pettigrew, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, USA

172. Vesna Pešić, sociologist, Serbia

173. Jusuf Piralić, Business Magazine, Bosnia and Herzegovina

174. Amna Popovac, Mostar, BiH

175. Milorad Popović, writer, Montenegro

176. Dr. Adnan Prekić, historian, university professor, Montenegro

177. Nenad Prokić, playwright, Serbia

178. Branka Prpa, historian, Serbia

179. Randall Puljek-Shank, PhD, Bosnian-American Friendship Association, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

180. Vesna Pusić, Sociologist, former Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, Croatia

181. Aleksandra Radoman-Kovačević, educational expert, Montenegro

182. Aleksandar Radoman, philologist, Montenegro

183. Šeki Radončić, journalist and writer, Montenegro

184. Duško Radosavljević, university professor, Serbia

185. Snežana Rakonjac, journalist, Montenegro

186. Prof. Dr. Šerbo Rastoder, member of Montenegrin Academy (CANU), Montenegro

187. Božo Repe, historian, Slovenia

188. Prof. Dr. Petra Roter, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

189. Farida Sadiković, medical doctor, Bosnia and Herzegovina

190. Prof. Dr. Lada Sadiković, Vice-Dean, Faculty of Criminology and Security Studies, University of Sarajevo

191. Dr. Slobodan Sadžakov, university professor, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

192. Adnan Salkić, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

193. Momir Samardžić, historian, Serbia

194. Prof. Dr. Nikola Samardžić, historian, Serbia

195. Dr. Zlatan Sarić, Prof., Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo

196. Prof. Dr. Christian Schwarz-Schilling, former Federal Minister and international High Representative; Büdingen, Germany

197. Stefan Schwarz, Germany

198. Nedim Sejdinović, journalist, Serbia

199. Aleksandar Sekulović, lawyer, Serbia

200. Envera Selimović, journalist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

201. Daniel Serwer, Johns Hopkins SAIS/Peacefare.net, Washington DC

202. Abdulah Sidran, writer, Member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

203. Nijaz Skenderagić, businessman, Bosnia and Herzegovina

204. Mehmet Slezović, painter, Serbia

205. Dr. Nijaz Sofić, ophthalmologist, Sydney, Australia

206. Prof. Dr. Džemal Sokolović, sociologist, Faculty of Political Science University of Sarajevo / University of Bergen, Norway

207. Мenka Spirovska, consultant for environment and health security, North Macedonia

208. Simona Spirovska Kostovska, actress, North Macedonia

209. Mr. Nemanja Stankov, political scientist, Montenegro

210. Danica Stefanović, pedagogue

211. Ivan Stefanovski, Executive Director, EUROTHINK-Center for European Strategies, Skopje

212. Lidija Stevanović, actress, Montenegro

213. Prof. Dr. Dubravka Stojanović, historian, Serbia

214. Dr. Milan Subotić, sociologist, Serbia

215. Emir Suljagić, Director of the Memorial Center in Potočari (Srebrenica), Bosnia and Herzegovina

216. Prof. Dr. Nedim Suljić, Vice-Dean, Faculty of Mining, Geology, and Civil Engineering, University of Tuzla, BH/US Academy of Arts and Sciences

217. Hazim Šabanović, International Forum Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina

218. Dino Šakanović, historian, Bosnia and Herzegovina

219. Đorđe Šćepović, writer, Montenegro

220. Senada Šelo Šabić, Senior Research Associate, Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), Zagreb

221. Stana Šego, retired educational inspector, Bosnia and Herzegovina

222. Renad Šeremet, mechanical engineer, Bosnia and Herzegovina

223. Bojan Šošić, psychologist, Association of Independent Intellectuals Circle 99, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

224. Darko Šuković, journalist, Montenegro

225. Tanja Šuković, journalist, Montenegro

226. Srđan Šušnica, Master of Cultural and Religious Studies and Graduate of Law, Bosnia and Herzegovina

227. Martin Tais, physicist and climatologist, Bosnia and Herzegovina

228. Prof. Lamija Tanović, Chair, Humanity in Action, Bosnia and Herzegovina

229. Petar Todorov, historian, North Macedonia

230. Rako Todorović Todor, painter, Montenegro

231. Dr. Tijana Todorović, visual artist, Montenegro

232. Aleksandra Tomanić, Executive Director, European Fund for the Balkans, Belgrade

233. Ambassador Osman Topčagić (retired), Sarajevo

234. Rada Trajković, medical doctor, Serbia

235. Dragana Tripković, playwright, Montenegro

236. Dr. Nevenka Tromp, University of Amsterdam, Holland

237. Dr. Sead Turčalo, Dean of the School of Political Sciences, University of Sarajevo

238. Boris Varga, political scientist, Serbia

239. Dion van den Berg, Team leader Europe at PAX for Peace, the Netherlands

240. Jelena Vasiljević, Senior Research Associate, Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory, University of Belgrade

241. Faruk Vele, journalist, Bosnia

242. Miodrag Vlahović, ambassador, Montenegro

243. Azem Vllasi, lawyer, politician and publicist, Prishtina, Kosovo

244. Toby Vogel, Senior Associate, Democratization Policy Council, Brussels, Belgium

245. Nikola Vučić, journalist, Bosnia

246. Čedomila Vujosević Đurđić, journalist, Montenegro

247. Zoran Vuletić, President of GDF, Serbia

248. Bodo Weber, Senior Associate, Democratization Policy Council, Berlin, Germany

249. Dr. Jonathan Wheatley, Senior Lecturer in Comparative Politics, School of Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, UK

250. Dr. Mark Wheeler, Wivliscombe, Somerset, UK

251. Dr. Tim Wilson, Director, Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV), School of International Relations, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, UK

252. Laura Wise, Research Associate, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

253. Visat Xhambazi, D4D, Prishtina, Kosovo

254. Olga Zirojević, historian, Serbia

255. Azra Zornić, citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina

256. Rajko Živković, journalist, Bosnia and Herzegovina